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大学英语四级写作提纲与谋篇布局

大学英语四级写作中,在审题结束后,接下来要考虑的就是如何布局行文了:文章分几个层次来写,每个层次又要表达什么样的中心,每个中心又有什么样的素材来做支持。行文前把自己的考虑简短地写成提纲不但有助于突出中心,布局合理,而且还可以避免在写作中因为紧张而顾此失彼。在四级考试中,相当一部分学生没能把作文写完,其中主要的原因就是没有能够快速地写出提纲。
英语提纲的模式一般为:
主题 (controlling idea)
I. 简介(Brief introduction)
II. 主要观点(Main idea)
A. 从属观点(Sub-idea)
1. 支持的证据(Supporting detail)
2. 支持的证据(Supporting detail)
例子1(Fact 1)
例子2 (Fact 2)
B. 从属观点(Sub-idea)
3. 支持的证据(Supporting detail)
4. 支持的证据(Supporting detail)
例子1(Fact 1)
例子2 (Fact 2)
III. 结论(Conclusion)
在以往的四级考试作文中,controlling idea基本上都已给出,每段的Sub-idea也很明显,有时甚至Supporting detail都已写出来,考生应加以充分地利用。以下面考题为例:
Direction: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic Global Shortage of Fresh Water. You should write at least 100 words, and should base your composition on the outline (given in Chinese) below:
1. 人们以为淡水是取之不尽的。
(提示:雨水、河水、井水……)
2. 实际上淡水是非常紧缺的。
(提示:人口增长,工业用水增加,污染……)
3. 我们应该怎么办?
在这个例子中,所有提纲的要素几乎都已列出,考生应把重点放到第三段,找出一些解决水短缺的方法。
英语提纲的写法一般分为两种:一种是句子式提纲;另一种是题目式提纲。不言而喻,句子式提纲是由句子所组成,行文时只需一些关联词基本上就可串成段落;而单词或短语式提纲主要是提供写作的思路,行文时还必须把所列的单词或短语组成句子,然后才形成段落。
试比较以下两篇不同类型的提纲:
1. Direction: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition of no less than 100 words on the topic: The Importance of School Library.
Title: The Importance of School Library
Outline:
1. A student has to borrow books from the library.
a. He needs reference books for his elective courses.
b. He may want to read novels, stories and plays.
2. He reads newspapers and magazines in the library.
a. Many new magazines are on display in the Reading-room.
b. There are all newspapers from all provinces.
c. Back numbers may be borrowed at the counter.
3. He needs the library all the more in his junior and senior years.
a. The library provides books for his research.
b. He wouldn’t be able to write his graduation paper without using the library.
2. Direction: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic How I finance My College Education. You should write at least 100 words, and should base your composition on the outline (given in Chinese) below:
1. 上大学的费用(tuition and fees)可以通过多种途径解决。
2. 那种途径适合我(说明理由)
Outline:
1. several ways:
a. from parents
b. loan from the bank
c. taking a part-time job
d. scholarship
2. parents pay
a. they can afford to pay
b. spending more time on my studies
c. my ambition
d. the hope of my parents
由于提纲只是写给自己看的,考生完全可以把它写成句子式提纲,也可写成题目式提纲,或者根据需要,二者混合使用。前提是不影响行文时的理解和有利于节省时间。
以下是考生在写提纲时应考虑的几种谋篇布局:

谋篇布局(1)
1.将提示的第一句作为文章的第一句
2.将提示的第三句作为第一段的最后一句
3.将提示的第二句展开成文章的中心段落
4.结论段归纳概括,提出建议。
例如:
标题:City Life and Suburban Life
提纲:1) 最近几年越来越多的人迁往近郊居住
2)城市生活和近郊生活各有特点
3) 比较起来,我喜欢的是……
In recent years more and more homes are being pushed outwards as the activities of business, government and pleasure tend to be concentrated in the centers of the cities. Although most people are reluctant to move to the outskirts of the cities, I feel like living in the suburbs.
It is true that the city can provide much convenience and entertainment, the very reason why people can't bear to part with city life. But the cost for the privilege of living in the city is also high. What's more, there is more gas and noise pollution in the city, which is full of petrol fumes and toxic gases, torn by the roar of buses and taxies, and thronged ceaselessly by great crowds. In contrast, living near the countryside one can enjoy the clean atmosphere, the closeness to nature and the quiet, peaceful surroundings --- the essentials of a healthy life. Although living in the suburbs one may suffer a little discomfort brought about by the necessity of traveling miles to work every day, it means nearly nothing when thinking of the high cost and heavily polluted environment of the city.
The new suburban life is fast becoming a predominant pattern of living in most cities; and with the improvement of traffic and the perfection of services, it will prove to hold great superiority over city life.

谋篇布局(2)
1. 根据话题加引段,于段尾提出自己的观点(也就是提示中的第三句要求内容)
2. 将提示的第一句和第二句写成文章的中心段落
3. 根据文章的叙述重点,总结全文,提出方法等。
例如:
标题: My View on College Students' Part-time Jobs
提纲:1)有人认为大学生做兼职工作很有好处;
2)然而,有人认为大学生做兼职工作弊多利少;
3)我的看法
Nowadays, an increasing number of college students are doing part-time jobs. People hold different opinions on that.
  Some people think that there are many advantages for college students to have part-time jobs. Firstly, part-time jobs offer them opportunities to apply what they have learned in school and demonstrate their abilities. Secondly, it enables them to be more independent of their family and builds up their self-confidence. Thirdly, part-time experiences may be of great help to their future careers. Finally, part-time jobs can broaden their college lives and help them know more of themselves and society.
However, some other people hold that doing part-time jobs has more disadvantages. The main job of college students is to study, not to work. If they have part-time jobs, they may have to reduce their time for sleep, rest, study and activities. Working several hours a day consumes a lot of time and energy and may affect their studies. As a result, they may find it hard to adjust to what the college expects of them as well as their employers expect, and finally, they may fall behind or fail in their studies.
In my opinion, students can choose to take up a part-time job according to their own situation. The most important thing for them is to keep a good balance between part-time jobs and his study.

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