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《牛津小学英语》语法复习
一、时态
1.一般现在时
1)表示经常发生的动作或事情,通常用 usually通常, often常常, every…每…, sometimes有时,always总是,”等词。
2)基本结构:
I / You / We / They
 He / She / It
   肯定句
   动词原形
动词第三人称单数形式
   否定句
  don’t  + 动原
doesn’t  + 动原
一般疑问句(Yes/No)
 Do… ? Yes, I do.
Does…(动词原形)…?No,she doesn’t.
特殊疑问句
What do …?
How does she…(动词原形)…?
(3) 动词第三人称单数形式(同名词单数变成复数方法相同)
1
一般情况
 +s
 如:walk-walks
2.
辅音字母+y结尾
y +ies
fly-flies
3.
结尾是 s, x sh, ch
+es
watch-watches
4.
特殊的
do-does ,have-has, go-goes
 
2.现在进行时,
1)表示正在发生的动作,通常用“now现在, look看,linsen”.
  2)基本形式: be + 动词ing
    eg:  I am(not)  doing my homework.
You/We/They   are(not)   reading.
He/She/It   is(not)  eating.
What are you doing? 
Is he reading?
  3)动词的现在分词形式(动词+ing
一般情况                
+ing 
walk—walking
结尾是不发音的 e
-e + ing
come—coming
重读闭音节
 双写最后一个字母+ing
run-running
swim-swimming
 
3. 一般过去时
(1)       表示过去已经发生的事情,通常用 “last …上一个…, just now刚才, a moment ago刚才, yesterday昨天等词。
(2)       be 动词的过去式:  am/is—was     are—were
   3)过去式基本结构
   肯定句(Positive
 动词过去式
 I went shopping last night.
   否定句(Negative)
Didn’t + 动词原形
I didn’t go shopping last night.
一般疑问句(Yes/No)
Did …+ 动词原形…?
Did you go shopping last night?
特殊疑问句(wh-)
What did…+ 动词原形…?
What did you do last night?
  4)词过去式的变化:
规则动词的变化:
一般动词   
+ed
planted,watered,climbed
以不发音的e结尾                   
+d
liked
辅音字母加y结尾
-y+ ied
study—studied, cry- cried
重读闭音节单词,末尾只有一个辅音字母
双写最后一个字母+ed
stop –stopped
plan - planned
不规则动词的变化:
原形
过去式
原形
过去式
原形
过去式
原形
过去式
sweep
swept
teach
taught
have
 had
go
went
keep
kept
think
 thought
do
 did
find
found
sleep
slept
buy
 bought
eat
 ate
say
said
feel
felt
drink
 drank
is/am
 was
take
took
read
read
give
 gave
are
 were
mean
meant
put
put
sing
 sang
drive
drove
meet
met
cut
cut
begin
 began
speak
spoke
make
made
let
let
ring
rang
write
 wrote
see
saw
fly
flew
run
 ran
ride
 rode
come
came
draw
drew
sit
 sat
hear
heard
tell
told
grow
grew
learn
learned/ learnt
get
got
know
knew
 
4.一般将来时
一般将来时表示将来打算做的事或将要发生的事情。常常与tomorrow, next Sunday等时间状语连用。
结构:be going to +动词原形或will +动词原形
例如:I’m going to visit my grandpa next week.
 
二、人称代词
 
主格
we
you
he
she
it
they
宾格
me 
us
you
him
her
it
them
形容词性物主代词
my
our
your
his
her
its
their
名词性物主代词
mine
ours
yours
his
hers
its
theris
                       
(注:介词,动词后面跟宾格。后面没有名词时用名词性物主代词。)
 
三、可数名词的复数形式
1.一般名词:                   + s         a book –books
2.辅音字母加y结尾:      - y+ ies       a story—stories
3.s, xsh, ch ,结尾:      + es          a glass—glassesa watch-watches
4.ffe结尾:       - f fe 变为 ves   a knife –knives  a shelf-shelves
5.特殊的名词复数
man-men, woman-women, policeman-policemen, policewoman-policewomen, mouse-mice
child-children
foot-feet,.tooth-teeth
fish-fish, people-people, Chinese-Chinese, Japanese-Japanese
 
四、不可数名词(没有复数形式)
  bread, rice, water, juicemilkteacoffee
 
五、缩略形式
  I’m = I am     you’re = you are    she’s = she is    he’s = he is /he has(got)
  it’s = it is     who’s =who is     can’t =can not   isn’t=is not   didn’t=did not   weren’t=were not   wasn’t=was not  let’s=let us   I’ll=I will
 
六、a. an .the的用法
1.单词的第一读音是辅音读音:a book,    a peach   a “U”
单词的第一个读音是元音读音:an egg an hour   an “F”
2.the要注意的:球类前面不加the,乐器前面要加the,序数词前面要加the
 
七、介词
  1.表示方位:on, in ,in front of, between, next to, near, beside, at, behind.under
  2.表示时间:
   1at : 几点前面用at如:at six o’clock, 没有day的节日前用at如 at Christmas,  固定词组 at the weekends ,at night
2on: 星期前用on 如:on Monday ,日期前用on 如:on the 15th of July   带有Day的节日前用on 如: on National Day
3in: 早晨,中午,晚上前用inin the morning ,in the afternoon in the evening ,月份前用in ,如in December ,季节前用in ,如 winter
 
八、基数词变成序数词的方法
  1. 直接在基数词词尾加上th。如:seventh第七,tenth 第十,thirteenth 第十三, 2.以y结尾的基数词,变yi,再加上eth。如:twentieth 第二十。
3.不规则的。如:first 第一, second 第二, third 第三,fifth 第五, eighth 第八,ninth 第九,twelfth 第十二。
4.有两个或以上单词组成的基数词只改最后一个单词如twenty-first 第二十一。
 
九、some /any的用法
1.肯定句中用someI have some toys in my bedroom.
2.问句和否定句中用angDo you have any brothers or sisters?
                       He hasn’t got any pencils in his pencil-case.
3.询问想要什么时用someWould you like some juice? 
                 Can I have some stamps?
                                                                                                                     
十、 there be结构
1.肯定句(有…): There is +单数或不可数名词
There are +复数
注:遵循就近原则,看靠there  be最近的
2.一般疑问句(有…吗?):Is there …?   Yes, there is./ No, there isn’t.
Are there…?   Yes, there are. /No, there aren’t.
3.否定句(没有): There isn’t ….   There aren’t….
4.there be句型与have(has) 的区别:there be 表示在某地有某物(或人);have(has) 表示某人拥有某物。

十一、祈使句
Sit down please
Don’t  sit down, please.
Let’s go to the park.
(注:祈使句中动词用原形)
 
十二、(情态)动词can, may, must, should, will 后面直接用动词原形。
1. I / He / She / They can sing.     May I come in?     I must go now.
2. You should be quiet in the library.
3. You’ll be good friends.
 
十三、形容词和副词的比较级
一、形容词的比较级
1、两个事物或人的比较用比较级,比较级后面一般带有单词than。比较级前面可以用more, a little 来修饰表示程度。。
2.形容词加er的规则:
一般在词尾加er
以字母e 结尾,加r
以一个元音字母和一个辅音字母结尾,应双写末尾的辅音字母,再加er
以“辅音字母+y”结尾,先把y变i,再加er
3.不规则形容词比较级:
  good-better, beautiful-more beautiful
二、副词的比较级
1.形容词与副词的区别 (有be用形,有形用be;有动用副,有副用动)
  ⑴在句子中形容词一般处于名词之前或be
动词之后
  ⑵副词在句子中最常见的是处于实义动词之后
2.副词比较级的变化规则基本与形容词比较级相同 (不规则变化:well-better, far-farther)

十四、特殊疑问句
   What
(问什么事,什么物或什么工作
What are you doing
I’m reading.
What is that?
It’s a book.
hat is she?(What’s her job?)
She’s a nurse.
What colour(问颜色)
What colour is your coat?              
It’s red.
What time(时间)
What time is it?
What’s the time?
It’s seven.
when
(什么时候)
When do you get up?
I get up at six thirty.
When is your birthday?
It’s on the 21st of December.
Which(哪一个)
Which is your watch, the yellow one or the white one?
The yellow is mine.
  Who(谁)
Who is the man with a big nose?
He’s my uncle.
Whose(谁的)
Whose bag is it?
Whose is this bag?
It’s his bag.
Where(哪里)
Where is my ball pen?
It’s under the book.
Why(为什么)
Why do you like summer?
I like summer because…
How many (多少)
How many books are there in the school bag?
There are four books in the school bag.
How old (几岁)
How old is the young man?
He’s nineteen.
How much(多少钱)
How much is the toy bear?
It’s eleven yuan.
How (怎么样)
How do you go to school everyday?
I go to school by car.

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