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小学英语语法汇总(四)

Do 的四作用
动词do在句中的作用可以概述为四句十二字:"做"实义,助动词,替前文,强语气。
  作用一:实义do
  do作实义动词时,有do, does, did, done, doing五种形式,还有及物、不及物之分。如:
  1. vt. "做;研究;整理;完成"。如:
  ①The old man does an hour of sport every day.
  ②She did her homework at home last night.
  ③Mother was doing the cooking when I reached home.
  ④Have you done the exercises yet?
  2. vi. "行动;工作;进展;足够"。如:
  ①Kate does very well in her Chinese.
  ②How do you do?
  ③Well done!
  ④That will do.
  作用二:助动do
  do作助动词时,只有do, does, did三种形式,无词义,限用于含行为动词的一般现在时和一般过去时两种时态的否定句和疑问句中。如:
  ①They don't have any tickets for tonight's concert.
  ②Kate stayed at home last night, didn't she?
  ③How many books does the library have?
  ④She doesn't do the washing in the evening.
  作用三:替代do
  为避免动词的重复,使语言简练,常以do, does, did替代前文所用的行为动词。如:
  ①Tom runs much faster than you do.
  ②-Lucy, can you get some more tea, please?
   -Sure. I'll do it right away.
  ②-Who broke the cup?
   -Mimi did.
  ③-I like bananas.
   -So does he.
  作用四:语气do
  为突出感情色彩,do常用于祈使句、强调句和倒装句中,以加强语气。如:
  ①Do be careful.
  ②Don't tell a lie.
  ③He did come.
  ④-You often go to the park.
   -So we do.

愁眉不展的 did
Hi!Dear friends! 大家都认识我吧,我是助动词did,我的最大特点就是善解人意、助人为乐嘛!可是呀,有时我的心情会很糟糕!这是因为一些粗心的朋友不理解我。现在我想把我的烦恼说出来,希望大家能够关心我,别再令我烦恼了,OK?
  1. 到底何时使用我?
  我和其它助动词一样,本身无意义,自己不能独立作谓语,只能和其它主要动词一起构成谓语,用于构成一般过去时的否定句和疑问句,当然也常常用于代替上文中的行为动词的过去式。如:
   I didn't go to school last Sunday. 上周日我没上学。
   Did you buy a new pen yesterday? 昨天你买了枝新钢笔吗?
   2.我身后的动词到底用什么形式?
   有的小朋友总不注意我身后的动词用什么形式,你说我多么烦恼呀!其实,在否定句和疑问句中,我身后的动词必须用原形。不信你来瞧:
   他昨天没有在家吃午饭。
   [误] He didn't had lunch at home yesterday.
   [正] He didn't have lunch at home yesterday.
  3. 我能用be动词代替吗?
  不管怎么说,含有行为(实义)动词的一般过去时的肯定句变成否定句或疑问句时,不能用be动词,必须用到我!含be动词的句子构成否定句或疑问句都绝不会让我露面!有的小朋友总是让我委屈、让我烦,还是看看例句吧:
   They went to the park last week. (改为否定句)
   [误] They weren't go to the park last week.
   [正] They didn't go to the park last week.
   小朋友们这次了解我了吧,今后可别再出错啦,否则我一定会更加愁眉不展的!OK, see you next time!

Be 的四功能
be是一个多功能动词,在初级英语里可见四种用法:
  功能一,系动词be
  be为连系动词,中心词义是"是",句型为"主+系+表"结构。be的形式常用am, is, are(现在式);was, were(过去式);will/can/may/must be(助动词/情态动词+原形);have/has/had been(助动词+过去分词)等。如:
  To help animals is helping people.(一般现在时)
  The twins were very busy yesterday.(一般过去时)
  It will be sunny tomorrow.(一般将来时)
  She has been ill for over a week.(现在完成时)
  功能二,助动词be
  助动词be,无词义,辅助主要动词一起在句中作谓语动词。用法如下:
  1. be+doing:构成进行时态,有现在和过去两种进行时态。如:
  The girls is reading and copying the new words now.
  Young Tom was always asking questions and trying out new ideas.
  2. be+done:构成被动语态(主语是动作的承受者,done必须是及物动词)。如:
  Tea is grown in my hometown.(一般现在时的被动语态)
  This building was built three years ago.(一般过去时的被动语态)
  Our classroom has been cleaned and tidied already.(现在完成时的被动语态)
  How could this kind of cakes be made in your home?(含情态动词的被动语态)
  That is a day never to be forgotten.(动词不定式的被动语态)
  3. be+going to do,表示"打算或将要做某事",be有现在和过去两种形式。如:
  We are going to plant trees in the park.
  I didn't know if she was going to come here.
  4. be+to do,表示"按计划安排将要做某事"。如:
  The new shop is not to be opened till next Monday.
  One night an angel came to Mary and told her that she was to have this special boy.

  功能三,there be
  there be句式为:there be+主语部分+状语部分,表示"某处存在某物",be常用现在时,过去时和将来时等。如:
  Oh, cool! And there are many things to see. There is even a deer park in Sanya.
  There are about 80 pyramids in Egypt.
  Will there be a football match in your school next week?

  功能四,实义be
  可以将be视为实义动词,因为它具有实际的词义,如"成为;做;发生;举行;逗留;到达"等。如:
  His daughter wants to be a doctor for animals in her twenties.
  Kate's birthday party will be at half past six this evening.
  Jim has been in China for more than two years, but he has not yet been to Yichang.

打开“like文档”
like既可作动词,又可作介词。在使用它时要好好分辨它的词性。否则,还真容易混淆。下面是我为大家创建的"like文档",打开它,like用法一目了然。
  【文档1】like作动词,意为"喜欢;爱好"。
  1.like+名词(代词)表示"喜欢某人或某物"。
  【操练】Mary likes apples a lot. 玛丽非常喜欢苹果。
  2.like doing (sth.) 表示"喜欢做某事",它侧重于经常性地喜欢做某事。
  【操练】She likes reading. 她喜欢阅读。
  3.like to do (sth.) 表示"喜欢做(某事)",它侧重于具体的、一次性的动作或行为,也表示偶然喜欢做某事。
  【操练】I like playing football, but I like to play basketball today. 我喜欢踢足球,但今天我喜欢打篮球。
  4. would like sth. / would like to do sth.表示"想要某物"/"想要做某事"。would like短语相当于want,但它比want的语气更委婉。
  【操练】I would like some cakes. 我想要些蛋糕。
  I would like to have dumplings. 我想吃饺子。
  5.would like sb. to do sth.表示"想要某人做某事"。
  【操练】I'd like you to go shopping with me.我想要你和我一起去购物。
  【相关链接】表示喜欢的程度。如"很(非常)喜欢",可在句式后加上a lot, a little或very much等。表示"不喜欢(做某事)……",可用"don't / doesn't like (doing/ to do sth.)",有时我们可在其后加上at all来表示不喜欢的程度。
  【文档2】like作介词,意为"跟……一样;像……"。
  1.like后接名词、代词作宾语。
  【操练】Don't throw it like this. 不要像这样扔。
  2.like分别与be和look构成be like,look like短语意为"看来像……一样"。
  【操练】She is like her mother. 她长得像她的母亲。

Some 与 Any
some和any都有"一些"的含义,都能修饰可数名词和不可数名词,但用法却大有不同。
  some 一般用在肯定句中。
  如: There are some girls in the classroom. 教室里有一些女孩。
  some有时也用于疑问句,表示期望得到肯定回答,并不表示对某事有疑问。
  如: Will you give me some ink? 请给我一些墨水好吗?
  any一般用于疑问句和否定句中。
  如: Are there any maps on the wall? 墙上有地图吗? There aren't any trees behind the house. 房子后面没有树。
  请用some和any填空,使句意完整。
  1. Are there ______ bananas in the bag?
  2. There are ______ goats under the tree.
  3. There aren't ______ people on the bus.
  4. There are ______ roses on the table.

“多少”须计较
【哥哥how many】请同学们评评理:我生来就与可数名词有缘, 我身后只用复数名词, 我就是我, 干吗把我放在单数名词或不可数名词的前面呢?!在复数名词的前面,有我弟弟how much的事吗? 我弟弟非要抢我的位置,你们说多么可气呀!如:
  你有多少本故事书?
  【误】 How many storybook do you have?
  【误】 How much storybook do you have?
  【正】 How many storybooks do you have?
  他想要多少块面包?
  【误】 How many piece of bread does he want?
  【误】 How much piece of bread does he want?
  【正】 How many pieces of bread does he want?
  【弟弟how much】 Hello, everyone! 我是弟弟how much , 在"多少"的问题上我与我哥哥是不同的,我用于修饰不可数名词,可是,how many有时也要插进来,这可是错误的呀!不可数名词是我how much的专利。不信,你们瞧:
  你需要多少肉?
  【误】 How many meat do you need?
  【正】 How much meat do you need?
  请大家评评理,看看我们到底谁对!另外,我能问"多少钱",我哥哥可以吗?如:
  How much was your pen? 你的钢笔多少钱?
  How much are those things? 那些东西多少钱?
  这回,同学们心中有数了吧!


小学英语语法汇总(四) 来自费尔教育。 点这里回到顶部

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